"Malay shamanistic performance"

divinations to discover aetiology of illnesses

p. 32 popped rice grains in 4 pairs for the 4 elements
pp. 32-3 flame of beeswax-candle unholy heat of jungle-bees' sting

p. 140, fn. 69 sekun, raksi, janji, temuan (harmony, good-luck, promises, meetings)

p. 93 origin of genies from emergence of the first man & the first woman

"__ (color) Genie" arose from__
Yellow fluid [amniotic] of parturition
Black placenta

p. 104 Lagu ("Tune")

Lagu Tune its utility
Kijang Mas Tuah Lucky Golden Barking-Deer seance
Pandan Wangi Aromatic Pandanus shaman's wind
Pak Yong Muda (hero of the Mak Yong) praises
Sedayung Oar or Boat-Pole to call penggawa (spirit-familiar)
Wak Tanda Raja Old-Man with Tokens of Royalty divination
Mengambul Swinging back and forth; Submerging and Emerging to put patient into trance
Kecubung Datura wind of were-tiger
Mengulit Lullaby ending

p. 143 the gates

of __

pp. 118-20 main peteri -- spirits speaking, successively, through the shaman

p. spirit meaning of name function
118 Radin Kecil Dahulu Permainan Bunga Little-Prince Flower-Play of Times-Past Inner Wind of performers
Pak Dogol & Sang Yang (Si Alam) Tunggal (son of Persanta) (in shadow-play)
Persanta ancestor
Wak Kedi Bomoh Old Shaman (from Siam)
119 Hulubalang Babi Garang Captain Fierce Pig earth-spirit
Tuan Kecil Radin Bertimbang Gambar Dear Little-Prince of "Pictures" discovery of his own father's identity
Wak Long clown-god "body dirt" (dead skin)
120 Angin Cik Salim Pendekar Wind of silat-master
member of family of Sang Kala ghostly
Hantu Raya (son of Daeng Dalit) praetended pilgrim
Anak Kera Gantih Hanuman the White-Monkey child
+Zohor (sister of princess +Flower) princess
Awang Malas Mati "Sonny" (p. 129, fn. 36) Reluctant to Die suggestor

pp. 124-179 complete text of the same main peteri

p. spirit meaning of name function
124 Swooping Eagle dalang (puppeteer)
Sang Bogar towering emmet-hill grandsire who granteth audiences
Sang Gana king of village
Light dewa (god)
Budak Kecil Belalang Kacung [= Hantu Raya (fn. 19)] Little Preying-Mantis
Pak Leh Black Rhinoceros mighty
125 +Golden-Guava princess
Languishing Snail
Shady Tree
Fledgling Bird
He Who Chastiseth as He Passeth
Distant Light dewa
Heavy Ambush
Dangerous War Due to Evil Influences commander
Dancing Sunbeam jin who levieth taxes & demandeth tribute
Omen jin who collecteth fees & offerings: speak to Endeng mabang (vampire)
Persistent Whirlwind granteth audience
Redoubleth Himself grandsire
Treacherous One Who Casteth His Net
Red-Eyed One with Curling Hair & Balding Tail
126 Yellow Turban grandsire {Chinese ?}
Green Shirt
Red Hat {rN~in-ma ?}
Keling-keling Bani commander
Anak Kera Gantih
Anak Kera Beleh
Patih Dalang wak (uncle)
Peran Muda wak (uncle)
Peran Tua
127 Kohor decrease grandsire
Writeth All Day commander
128 Sang Gana village's edge
Borak [Lightning] king-of-birds = winged steed
Hukum legal decision kings of the 7 fields & 8 palaces
129 Semar with black stone, red stone
Nik Si Khabar king of the mountain hidu -- bisik -- risik
130 father invisible in <eden
mother disappeared into Jeddah
child waiting in wastelands, at the bolted door of the earth
White Bird, raised by the child (semangat, the vital spirit -- fn. 40)
inverted (upside-down -- fn. 41) wise man (sokma, the soul of metempsychosis -- fn. 41)
131 Radin Kecil Dahulu Permainan Bunga Little-Prince Flower-Play of Times-Past Player's Wind = protective inner force of ritual performers
132 magpie clever reciter
thrush clever converser
hummingbird clever narrator
133 Jawa Jati (tree of Dewa Muda -- fn. 48)
135 Arak Temarak Praedecessor father: [harps] by the waters of Babylon
+Siti Nur Ziarah Lady Light of Visitation mother: clear water (p. 136)
137 Gerga Jiwa Herdsman of the Soul = Kakak Persanta (fn. 58)
138 captain Poison a sea-spirit
captain Seafish a sea-spirit
139 Wak Kedi Bomoh Old Shaman from the Siamese Monastery = Maharisi Mata Api ("the sage Eye-Fire") : "original mouth" & "original phallos"
143 Andera Raja = Andera Dewa
Raja Andera (his brother) = Dewa Andera
144 Dewa Muda in Java
+Si Lindung Bulan (fn. 82) princess Hidden Moon {cf. aeternal Vr.ndavana, place of the hidden moon} (his mother) queen of Java
rusa (or, pelanduk) golden deer (or, golden mousedeer) is eaten by D.M. at his mother's behest
145 7 hala-s 7 weretigres (fn. 85) masters of silat (= tai-c^i)
nenek Dahar Berasa Ribu grandsire Who Dineth upon 1000 Flavors (p. 146 "from the gates of the earth.")
146 Semar {cf. Himeros} servant of Inu prince of Koripan (fn. 88) {Invus}
147 Black Beetle
149 Borak Raja Burung Sewah Rajawali Winged Steed, the Eagle, King of Birds joined by its shadow: entering through the 12 doors of the 1 room, to make sure that no nightmares occur
150 Hulubang Babi Garang captain Fierce Pig at building with 3 spaces = (fn. 92) human body with 3 spaces, inside head, inside chest, and inside belly
151 Scissors in the Barrel of the Gun = teeth (fn. 95) in (fn. 94) mouth
152 Tuan Kecil Radin Bertimang Gambar Dear Little Prince of "Pictures" [from Land of Grassy Beaches, along Strand of Blooming Palms (p. 153)] waiteth nigh: mango-tree, layang-tree, ratna-liana encircling ru (casuarina)-tree [leapt into junk, golden barge (p. 153)]
153 Hovering White Light of Desire climbeth the tree at Kuala Kubu
154 Awang his father is Ali Akbar; his mother is Siti Mak Lamah
155 cik ("mr.") Long = Wak Long [a puppet (p. 156, fn. 105)]
158 Budak Kecil Seri Permainen Noble Young Performer Wind for performing in shadow-play
159 cik Salim Pendekar mr. Salim the Champion originator of silat
160 Sang Kala Who Endureth, the Large
162 Wak Haji Putih Kopiah Lembek Venerable Pilgrim with the Soft Cap (worn by men who have gone on the haj)
Uncle White Turban for �whom da'eng ("noble") Dalit made a clearing in the forest nigh the pool
163 Raja Adil the Just King waiting for 4 full moons
166 Anak Kera Gantih� [Anak Kera Beleh (p. 167)] Hanumant �the White Monkey (as a child) [enter a country called "Weeding the Flower-Garden" (p. 168)]
168 +Zohor�{[<ibri^] book Zohar} afternoon prayer princess [whose sister princess Flowerbud was taken away from the top of the mainmast by the one called "Make the Baby Cry" (p. 169)]
170 the Heavenly Midwives they descend upon the white elephant with 9 tusks
172 Awang Malas Mati Sonny Loathe to Die carrying sword & torch lit with 5 flames
173 Dewa Berma Jaya brother of the Green Horse
Harimau Besar Serjan Kilat [Sejalur Wangi (fn. 143)] the Great Tigre [alias dictus "Sergeant Lightning, Fragrant Striped One" (p. 175))
175 Dododododo tigre's roar (fn. 146) whose mother is Black +Meriam
+Zali princess: adopted daughter of Dewa Penc^il
179 Tersenang Sini I Am at Ease Here "to have come out of a trance" (p. 178, fn. 154)
The Intruder
Confusion & Stupidity
Hidden Message of Annihilation
Awang Mindung Pengasuh peran (servant)
Fruit of White (or Foamy) Waters waves, by strings of the Winds

pp. 183-184 seance for ailing shaman -- spirits speaking, successively, through other (curing) shaman

p. spirit meaning of name function
183 Radin Kecil Mulia Maharaja His Small Majesty one of the body's protective forces
Seri Mas Raja Bomoh Golden King of Shamans praesided over popped-rice divination
peng-hulu headman of the earth's realm
184 3 ghostly brethren

[pp. 186-213 is complete text of the same seance for ailing shaman]

introductory song, by the minduk ("shaman's assistant")

p. spirit meaning of name function
186 shaman upon the royal dais ("human head", fn. 3)
drummers in palace of bone (of body)
fiddlers in palace of flesh (of body)
original Player of the earliest gebiah ("Play, seance")
187 "Last of all teachers and first of all teachers": his [4] names are (pp. 187 & 188):- within the glassy pool (= eyen) of earthly beads (= pupils of eyen)
187 & 188 Prince of the Koran
Kumar Hakim whom Allah sealed into a cave (fn. 14)
Radiant King
188 Beramah the Invisible grandsire: who practiced austerities before the sky had been sundered [from the earth, fn. 15] {this sundering is Chinese!}
Nur Allah Light of God father, in whose kandungan ("womb", viz. brain -- fn. 18) B. stayed the 1st 40 days of life (before gestation)
Nur Ahut (?Ahadiat -- fn. 17) Light of ... (?Beginning) mother, into whose womb B. was transferred after the 40 days
189 his highness Light of the Bottom from the bottom of the earth
his highness Light of Speech from the middle of the earth
his highness Thundrous Light
black Turas companion of Semar [= Smara], a servant of prince Panji (fn. 20)
190 Nenek Sang Gana headman of the village
The Yellow Lord Who Asketh to Fly, Young Beramah Yellow Essence of Flying, his aethereal majesty Beramah the Soarer, The Essence of Flying, the Young Glider Beramah = Brahma
Nenek Raja Hakim prince of the jungle
raja Bali sultan of the plains
191 the Black One descended bodily
the Yellow One overseeth destiny

gerak angin ("bestirring the wind"), by the minduk

p. the named its name, or meaning
192 the 4 pent-up winds, which emerge from hujung kadim ("tip aeternal") [correlation uncertain: "lava" should go with "mustard"; "wicked desires" (of bandits) with the "open, sesame" (of the bandits' stash)]
sesame-seed Angin Lahar ("lava") Ahmad
mustard-seed Angin Umara of nafsu jahat ("wicked desires" -- fn. 29)
golden bouquet of flowers Angin Nur Jila
silver bouquet of flowers Angin Nur Zila
193 members of divine family
father Ali Akbar
mother Siti Halma
their child Wise-One-is-Born
194 the 7 gates: vanished gates to the lane, to the valley
gate of lust
gate of passion
gate of desire
gate that shutteth off elemental desire
gate of law
gate of faith
gate of wisdom
196 to awaken the inang ("nurse"). along with the 2 pengawa
White Crow roh ("human soul"), Tarbuni the "steed of the gods"
Bukit Berapik "hill of intimacy"
Gunung Berapi "flaming mountain" = volcano (fn. 44)

the shaman's incantation

p. spirit meaning of name function
196 Hanumant Ikan jawed fish
197 Dewa Derma Kecil Jaya ruler in Kayangan
Dewa Andera
Andera Dewa
Inu & Turas
Dewa Penc^il
Dewa Semar
Dewa Muda
queen of Java
Hang Jebat
198 Hang Tuah
Wak Tanda Raja Old Man with Regal Tokens = Maharisi Mata Api (Sage with Fiery Eye) = Wak Kedi Bomoh (Old Siamese Healer)
Awang Jiding pulse
Awang Mahat elephant-driver elephant = emotions (fn. 56), at nape of neck
Mother White Swallow semangat (the human spirit)
Semar Lengan
Radin Kecil Mulia Maharaja His Small Majesty
Nerajit son of Maharaja Wana
199 Radin Kecil Mulia Maharaja ["before Creation was complete, I guarded the four outer walls, caverns, the two bends in the river ,,," (p. 200)]
203 Flower's Child popped divination-rice (fn. 69)
Yellow Child divination-candle's flame (fn. 69)
searcher for jasmine
flowerbud [of jasmine?] planted by lady Fatimah
root [of jasmine?] King Who Sitteth Below
leaf [of jasmine?] Sword of Ali
plant-shoot [of jasmine?] Arrow Gandewat
206 Si Lindung Bunga Hidden Flower of the Wind: unfoldeth the gods
210 macaque "trained to harvest coconuts" (fn. 85)
Anak Jin Serupa Muka Genie with the Look-alike Face [made a pact with black Semar Who Rolleth-Up the Earth (p. 212)]
213 Mambang Indera Waki 1st of 3 brethren
Mambang Indera Wayang 2nd of these 3 brethren
Mambang Indera Waya 3rd of these 3 brethren

p. 198, fn. 56 Awang Kasim = "eyes of the shaman as he goes into trance" -- "the shaman shakes his head in trance", from Awang Mahat

p. 198, fn. 58 ""One king with two names" means that the shaman has taken a second persona; he is "carrying" a spirit."

pp. 217-218 ingredients for breaking contracts with the spirit-world

1st pulut kuning rice with turmeric
2nd 'teri mandi little cakes
3rd 6 hard-boiled eggs, 1 of them having 7 pins stuck in it
4th dadar kuah pancakes with custard-sauce
5th fried millet & fired beans
6th bertih popped rice
7th water for spirits to drink, in clam-shells
8th limes
9th pebbles
10th coins
11th "releasers" -- strands of palm-frond tied into slipknots
12th coconut-bowl
13th nail hammered into wood-plank
14th dough fashioned into figurines of : humans
15th epistle addressed to hantu telling them that a farm would be provided for them whenever: the fried millet & fried beans sprout
the pebbles grow roots
the nail released itself from the plant
the pins fall out of the egg
the clam shells have babies

p. 222 said farm was to be offered to Sang Raya Uban

spirits coming to visit at the breaking contracts with the spirit-world

p. spirit meaning of name function
219 Awang Mindung Pengasuh servant to Dewa Muda
Wak Kedi Bomoh the Sage from Siam
220 Pak Deh (= Pak Dogol)
Hitam Seri Penakluk Illustrious black Conqueror ruling the crossroads
Mek Bunga +Flower female: flirtaciously "sifting and winnowing"
221 Mek Ketuk-ketak +Click-clack female spirit lusting after men
Hanuman Ikan jawed fish rounding-up spirits
Tok Jerambang Old Will-o'-the-wisp fisher-catching spirit
Wal Long joked
Budak Kecil Sonny Boy fierce jungle-spirit
Wak Tok Juara Mikat Old Expert Birdcatcher
Sultan Ahmad protected human from enemies
Tok Nyadap Old Toddy-Tapper "making bawdy jokes"
222 Sang Raya Uban Mighty Grey Spirit
Anak Raja Mahatawar Prince Potent Cure a "releaser"
Anak Raja Segunung Tawar Prince Mountain of Remedies blessing tepung tawar ("neutralizing rice-paste")

some of these spirits wept, sobbed as they were being abandoned by their human patron

classes of spirits encountered in breaking contracts with the spirit-world

p. spirit
227 Semar (Smara)
Black __ who rolleth-up the earth
__ Point
Swaying __
__ Who Sweepeth Heaven & Earth
__ Who Catcheth the Earth
__ Who Up-endeth the Earth
__ Who Giveth Life to the Earth
__ Who Shutteth-up the Earth
228 Ogre
Playful __
__ called Lampagar
Sturdy __
__ called Green Fly
Earth __
Water __
Fire __
Phlegm __
Pelesit (women's familiar spirits, fn. 13)
Putarrangas (dangerous spirits)
Polong (men's familiar spirits, fn. 13)
230 Mighty __ Spirit
231 Jin __
Jisim ('body')
Jiring (a tree-species)
Jiha (a tree-species)

p. 308 village-headmen spirits: one and many names

headman spirit meaning
Hitam Seri Penaklak Black Conqueror
Seri Pejajat Wanderer
Hitam Batang Pengulit Black Crooner of Lullabyes
Kuning Batang Pengedan Yellow Mad-for-Love

miscellaneous spirits

p. spirit meaning
311 Radin Kecil Aulia Gunung Padang Terselor Little Prince Holy Mountain Interspersed by Fields
+Hei Mek Batik Baju Hijau Miss Green Dress (whose parents tend the jungle)
312 Sewah Raja Burung Teriak 'Stana Malam Swooping King of Birds Who Screameth in the Palace by Night
Anak Jin Putaran army of the Rotating Genie
Anak Borak Api Nenek Sebut Tari Sinar Tari Fiery Steed Grandsire Sun's Rays
Hala Rimau Besar Serjan Kilat Wind of the Wer-tigre
313 Guru Maha-tawar Teacher Great Antidote
Koibeh (who found & drank the Water of Life0

p. 314 to exorcize the jin who pierce the "soles of humanity's feet"

jin meaning
Mamat Jin Hitam Halalintar Genie Black Thunderbolt
Jin Kuning Panah Lat Juna Kilat Barat Sulung Tahun Genie yellow Bone of Arjuna Western Lightning of the New Year
Anak Jin Hitam Batu Laleng Genie Black Immovable Stone
Batu Larut Dissolving Stone
Sang Babi Kepala Tujuh 7-Headed Pig
Hantu Raya Mighty Spirit
Si Tunjang Raya Mighty Kicker
Si Balik Raya Mighty Returner
Awang Si Rambut Ekar Mata Merah Dada Bidang Sonny of Dishevelled Hair, Red Eyen, & Wide Chest

p. 319 characters of the winds, out of the "199 Winds"

Angin __ ("__ Wind"} is title of __
Putih (white) white blood of raja-s
Merah (red) Baginda Ali
Hitam (black) Raja Bali
Kuning (yellow) wind of deva

p. 320 hantu, source of nafsu ("desires")

Hantu meaning
Awang Jambu Lebat Sonny of the Abundant Guava-s
Hantu Raya Mighty Spirit
Awang Jangak Handsome Sonny
+Mek Comel Miss Cutie
+Mek Teri Masuk Miss Enter the "Play"
+Mek Jin Kuning Miss Yellow Genie
+Mek 'Stana Malam Miss Night Palace
+Mak Baju Batik Cula Hijau Mother Green Jacket
+Mek Telaga Rendam Miss Soaked in the Well
+Mek Kopek Lanjut Miss Longteats
+Belalang Kacung Si Dada Bidang Wide-chested Mantis
+Mak Beruk Besar Mother Large Macaque
+Mak Pangan Langah Mother Gaping Jungle
+Mak Pangan Putih Mother White Jungle


p. # signification
127 7 holy elders
5 fiddlers
1000 names 1000 changes of form
40 spirits
7 imps [7 earths -- p. 128]
132 7 shutters (of the 7 windows -- fn. 47) the 7 body-parts (fn. 47)
9 back-doors the 9 orifices of the body (fn. 47)
4 walls the 4 elements (fn. 47)
5 palaces the 5 senses (fn. 47)
134 20 attributes of God / of humanity (God & humanity are identified (fn. 53))
146 & 148 44 spirit-soldiers
152 12 white stones
160 4 Sultans will release us
168 2nd petal Antidote Stone
3 petals Marble
4 petals Starburst of Sapphires
5 petals Yellow Stone {cf. park in WY}
171 7 curves in the road into the palace
174 7 Tigre Spirits with 40 stripes [servants of the Great Tigre (p. 175)]
7 macaques
190 7 bujang & janda the never-married & the praeviously-married (but currently single) -- fn. 24
192 90 holy prayers to open pent-up wind
193 5 rays of light the 5 senses
6 magical words the directions, including up & down
7 thunder-claps
195 4 Kings
4 Commanders
4 Guardians
4 Heroes
197 12 famous Winds
4 Heroes
4 Guardians
199 7 verandahs body-parts
5 castles senses
1 palace the human body
212 7 Ogres of the earth made pact with Anak Jin Serupa Muka
220 7 Mighty Spirits "Sang Raya Tujuh"
7 familiar-spirits "Polong Tujuh"
231 2 Sparrows spirits
40 Crows spirits
1 Lone Monkey
1 Lone Ape
1 Lone Gibbon

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF HEALTH SYSTEMS AND MEDICAL CARE. Carol Laderman; Taming the Wind of Desire. U. of CA Pr, Berkeley, 1991.