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''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.

''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.

''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.

''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.

''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.

''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.

''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.

''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.

''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.

''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.

''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.

''

Calling the Soul of the Dead [Mongol]

the 3 souls

p. soul
1 "The first soul stays ... in the whole skeleton, ... and is believed to appear in the form of a skeleton. After death this soul ... leaves the body and stays in the grave or around the dead corpse to protect it.
The second soul can leave the body in the form of a wasp or bee through the nose or mouth. ... When one is frightened, or chuckles or sneezes, this soul drops out of the body and is chased by evil spirits."
2, fn. 5 "If somebody is ill, it is because his soul (su:r su:lde) left his body ... . If a child is frightened his soul escapes. You have to put your hat on your head[,] turn around and call the soul".
1, fn. 3 "the soul (su:nesu:n) resides in a different part of the body on each of the 30 days of the month".
2 "The third soul is imagined as a human figure. [At] death, ... it becomes an evil spirit that haunts around the settlement."
2, fn. 5 "The soul of men (su:nesu:n) after death ... walks in the house and his footsteps can be traced in ash thrown on the floor."
21 the su:nesu:n of the dead : "If the soul walks on ash, it leaves traces. People see the soul as a shade."

the 5 souls

p. soul
4 "su:ld is a protector and su:ns is the soul".
29 [Zahc^in] "The su:lde is a protector. The su:ns leaves the body when someone dies. ... One has five cul-s and five su:lde-s – the five cul-s have five su:lde-s."

rituals for calling back the soul of the sick

p. ritualism
8 qualities are inhaerent in __
long life arrow
soul turquoise
"revolving five elements" 5 colors
9 [Buriat] surrogate born same year as patient is ritual recipient on behalf of patient : "The patient is given pastry to eat and his dresses are weighed. If it grew heavier, the soul has arrived ... . When the soul arrives the patient gets well."
10 [Buriat] "A red silk rope is led from the patient to a birch tree set up outside the yurt. The soul of the patient is supposed to come back along this rope ... . Outside the yurt a man holds a horse, as ... this animal perceives first the arrival of the soul and quivers."
11 [Buriat] "A special arrow (dalangajin nomo) is stuck into this bucket [of "riches" (containing silver)]. ...
12 A long, red ribbon with a copper button at the end is fastened to this arrow. Then the ribbon is ... tied to a branch of birch tree that had been stuck there [outside the yurt] into the earth. The red ribbon serves as the path of the soul. ... A man is sitting near the tree branch and keeps the ... horse of the patient. ... the horse feels the presence of the returned soul and begins to tremble and neigh."

p. 19 "Somebody can call his own soul, ... dropping seven pebbles into a well."

rituals for calling back the soul of the dead

p. ritualism
13 [Jarud banner of eastern Mongolia] "Calling the soul with the breast" [teat] ritual "was performed by the mother to call back the soul of her dead son" : "a kind of dalalga ritual with the mother-breast instead of the usual arrow."
[H^orc^in] "when a child dies the mother examines the ash around the fireplace, as it is supposed that the soul leaves through it."
15 [Jarut] For the newly dead, "The lamas called his soul every day for 49 days. They also consulted the book "Altan saba" to get information where he was reborn."
16 [Jarut] The way for the soul of the dead to be reborn "is the white road." The "way to rebirth" is through "crossing the water" and "climbing the mountain pass."
17 [Jarut] text of ritual for calling the soul of the newly died, along the "black direction" :- "crossing the muddy water, ... the body that became yellow we call, ... among the bent trees, ... your soul was strangled".
20 [Ordos] "This death ritual is performed by a lama who ties the one end of a string to the hand of the patient, the other one to the reins of his own horse."

rituals for calling back the soul

p. ritualism
23 "The soul of a sick man is called, the soul of somebody who has been frightened and began to tremble." in calling the soul of a person who is lost, "When calling the soul they read out a book and hit the yurt with that book."
24 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of a sick child "with the wing of a dead bird" :
25 that "bright red thing" (wing?) "pointing towards" the child.
27 [Torgut] calling the soul of a sick man : "The soul is called three times by name. Taking the hat into hand they go around the yurt three times. ... His hat is also placed under his pillow and he sleeps on it. And, the man who calls the soul takes away a small axe placed next to the patient."
28 [Zahc^in] calling the soul of the sick : "Some of them wrote the name of the patient on a piece of bark ... placed on top of water in a pot."
33 "a vulture feather ... should be ... stuck into a measure of barley". {cf. Daoist caerimonial sticking of ritual implements into peck-measure of grain}
36 "Take a bucket of grain and put into it an arrow decorated with vulture feather as a seal. ... a mirror that is placed on the left shoulder of the patient."
37 "Tie a three foot-long red rope to the two horns of a sheep that has a white spot on its head".
[Buriat] "Seal the bucket of grain with a vulture feathered arrow. ... And also, tie an arrow with the feather of a great eagle to the horns of a white-headed sheep with a three foot long red rope ... . Tie the mirror ... to the right shoulder of a male and to the left shoulder of a female patient."
38 [Buriat] "Call it [the soul] from the four directions thrice thrice in the notches of an arrow".
39 [Buriat] "Put 9 lamps into 9 pots of water."

customs involving domestic animals

p. 35, fn. 51 "It is forbidden to kill or beat a dog. ... It is the riding animal of Mahakala. ... When a dog dies a piece of butter is put into its mouth and buried with the benediction "be born for human in the next life"."
p. 35, fn. 52 "When Mongols dig a well they do it with the teeth/tooth of a hog not to hurt the Dragon spirit(s) (luu). The teeth of a pig are worn around the neck of a child to protect him against evil spirits."

ritual implements

p. implement
40 "Divination arrow are employed in longevity rituals of deities such as Gesar ... . Many Tibetan deities of non-Buddhist origin, many of whom are said to have been subjugated by Padmasambhava, carry it."
42 The patient eateth the meat of the sheep’s "foreleg called "soul-leg"."
"the Nanai term for mirror pan~aptu comes from the word pan~a "soul, spirit"."
43 "The mirror is also an attribute of Erlig Khan, the ruler of the underworld. He can see in it the previous deeds of the departed." {Erlig H^an = Dharma-t.hakura, owner of mirror wherein deeds of the dead (performed while living) are seen.}
44 " "a white skin shall be spread out. If it is not spread out, sickness in the progeny will not be broken off." ... The new bride should step on it ["white carpet"] when arriving at the new home."

pp. 56-58 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) the soul is called forth from among its captors :

p. captors description of captors Bodish
56 Gandi guardian of treasures, one of the ed sakiGc^in (p. 56, fn. 18), who are 8 (p. 174) = the nor-skyon
57 erlig-s yama-s (p. 177)
28 nags^adar naks.atra-s
Murj^i H^an
the mu-bdud "in heaven" (p. 205)
the albin goblins the bcan, having 21 princes (p. 164) {successive rulers of ks.atriya-s destroyed by Paras`u-rama}
the s^imnus mara-s (p. 214) the bdud (p. 214)
em-e (p. 176) "females"
mN~am mchams-bdud ?
dakini-s d.akin.i-s
Teyiren "one-armed and one-legged with female breasts." ["It makes goods and food vanish and helps thieves and robbers." (pp. 216-7)] ["He is described ... with one eye, one ear, one hand, one foot. {cf. Aja Eka-pad} He hides on back side of the door" (p. 217). {cf. Lydian dynastic legend mentioned by Herodotos}] The>u-ran (p. 216) ["He also makes ash-coloured children appear in one’s dream." (p. 217)]
Gonbo >Gon-po (p. 180)
Egu:les-u:n ada "evil spirit of clouds" (p. 174) sPrin-gn~an ? (one of the dregs-pa)
U:c^u:ken Eliy-e "small hawk"
the c^idku:r devils >dre (p. 169, fn. 65)
58 the butinar bhuta-s >byun-po (p. 58, fn. 33)

pp. 59-64 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) further details, in calling of soul

p.
59 Man.i-bhadra [yellow, riding blue horse (p. 205)] is invoked {this is god of travelers, to assist the return trip of the soul}
60 ransom is paid to erlig Nom-un H^an
64 "river of the Erlig" "deserted road of the Erlig" "narrow mountain passage of the Erlig"

reasons wherefore the soul may have fled, as fears :

pp. 60-63 (Sazykin 1272 = C 143, which is Buriat, p. 32) pp. 77-79 (Sazykin 1274 = C 145, which is Buriat, p. 32 : "This is the soul-beckoning ritual carried out by Saint padmasambhava when Cakravartin Khan has fallen ill." )
p. fear of __ p. fear of __
60 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragons, planets 77 the supreme bla-ma gods, dragon-kings, constellations one’s own transgressions
61 asura-s, gandharva-s daimones, devils, hawk servants of erlig-s and of devils worldly h^an-s, nobles sharp knives strong odor of women curse, arrogance clouds, fog, mist, sun, moon voice of dragon, thunder mound, steep ravine 78 asura-s, gandharva-s evil spirits, hindrances, troubles the servants of Erlig evil ones, daimones several sufferings of the world sharp weapons women’s odor curses, dispute darkness, dimness voice of dragons, hail, thunder mountains, steep ravines
62 all the 5 elements Winged Garud.a spirits of the 5 elements "the Flat-winged Bird"
many-feeted ones and those without feet trees, small thorns bad forms, dirt bad illness, ulcer, tumor 79 black-headed people suspicion bad odor of dead corpse bad and dirty food bad disease

pp. 117-129 (Sazykin 1275 = I 20 2908)

p.
117 "Sparkling Light of Ud.d.iyana" encircled by "majestic" d.akin.i-s
118 "Mother with the Voice of a Dead [?] Conch"
bla-ma d.akin.i from "Palace of Poisonous, Powerful Tantra" of Z`an-z`un
Mother d.akin.i of manGus [raks.asa (p. 204)]
"Palace of the red Jisum-a [?] White Rock"
"Palace of Gc^i isum-a [?] Red Rock."
120 "red wind of the Erlig"
"deserted way of the Erlig"
"skeleton-white passage"
122 "The great ocean called Chinggis is flowing with blood"
"There are ten gorges of the Erlig ... . Five of them block you from behind ... . The other five receive you from the front side".
123 "in the dry land of the Erligs, You will be weighed on great scales. Your flesh and bones will be separated."
125 "The evils of the male devil push you into the darkness and weigh you on their scales. They separate your flesh and bones and piercing through your skin, take off your flesh".
128 "We call the soul of man from the hands of the female evil spirit Isma of C^angzhung Isma of the red rock".
129 "red wind of the Erligs"
"deadly path of the Erligs"
"skeleton-white narrow yurt."

pp. 160-161 #s of malevolent deities who harm children -- Bodish dgon = Mongolian ada

p. harmers their number
160 gdon 4, 15, or 18
161 " 424 or else 1 laks.a

p. 163 groups of ada & their #

group in __ kinds each comprising __ amounting to __
u:ndu:su:n 21 50 1080
of these 404 cause disease

p. 171 the names of the 14 preta-s (= Bodish yi-dvags = Mongolian birid), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 171-173 the names of the 36 preta-s

pp. 200-203 the names of the naga-s (= Bodish klu = Mongolian luu), according to the Maha-vyutpatti

pp. 206-207 the names of the 28 naks.atra-s (= Bodish rgyu-skar = Mongolian nags^adar, qorin naiman odun)

p. name meaning Bodish
206 Mec^id Monkey sMin-drug
Qabar Nose sNar-ma
Terigu:n / ToloGai Head mGo
Gar Arm Lag
Eki IlaGuGsan 1st Victorious Nabs-so
AdaG IlaGuGsan Last Victorious rGyal
Engeske Rouge sKag
QosiGun Beak mC^hu
BaG-a Su:ke Small Axe Gre
Kegu:rj^igen-e Pigeon dBo>
Qarc^aGai / Do:rben Gal Falcon / 4 Fires Me bZ^i
Qar-a Black Nag-pa
Eki OGtarGui / Gaj^ar J^iruqai Beginning of Sky / Land-Picture Sa-ri
AdaG OGtarGui End of Sky Sa-ga
J^absar Interval lHa mChams
Tosun Butter snRubs
Eki Usun / Degedu: Usun Source of River / Upper Water C^hu sTod
AdaG Usun / Dooradu Usun Mouth of River / Lower Water C^u sMad
BuGudai C^ilen Wheat-like Gro-bz^in
QuluGuna C^ilen Rat-like Byi bz^in
Sim Essence Mon-gre
SibaGun-u Segu:l Tail of Bird Mon-gru
Eki QutuG 1st Blessing Khrums sTod
207 AdaG QutuG Last Blessing Khrums sMad
C^aGun OnGoc^a Ship of Time Nam-gru
Beriy-e Stick Tha-skar
TulG-a Kettle-support Bra-n~e

p. 234 the names of the averters of the ada-s (= Bodish dregs-pa ‘child disease’)

SILK ROAD STUDIES, IX = Alice Sa`rko:zi & Alexey G. Sazykin : Calling the Soul of the Dead. Brepols Publ, Turnhout (Belgium), 2004.